Your foot has an incredible design. All of the parts fit together in such a way as to be flexible and moveable while still being very strong. One of the important parts of the foot is your arch. Located in the middle of your foot, it is slightly raised off the ground and helps you absorb the impact of every step. Sometimes, however, it can ache and make walking or standing around very uncomfortable.
The arch of the foot is the concaved, mid-section of the sole. While it only spans an inch or two in most adults, this one small area of the foot bears nearly all of your weight when you walk, and helps to transfer this weight from heel to ball. Just beneath the skin on the sole of the foot, a tough, elastic ligament called the plantar fascia extends from your heel bone to the metatarsal area of the foot. This ligament is designed to bounce gently with the spring of your step, but a number of factors can cause it to become unhealthy. These include. An abnormal walking gait. Vigorous high-impact exercise such as running, playing tennis or basketball. Being overweight. Wearing shoes that slant or cramp any part of the foot. Wearing shoes that have worn down in the heel or sole. A traumatic injury to the foot, including cuts, bruises, strains and fractures. The presence of arthritis or other inflammatory conditions. The normal aging process. In the presence of any of the above factors, the plantar fascia ligament can begin to flex beyond its normal range of motion. Small tears may develop in the tissue and inflammation is commonly present. You may describe your arch pain as sore, sharp, tender, intermittent, constant, burning, tingling or aching. All of these adjectives may be signs that you are experiencing a condition called Plantar Fasciitis.
Symptoms of plantar fasciitis may occur anywhere along the arch, but it is most common near its attachment to the heel bone. Symptoms of plantar fasciitis vary, but the classic symptom is pain after rest--when you first get out of bed in the morning, or when you get up after sitting down for a while during the day. This is known as "post-static dyskinesia." The pain usually diminishes after a few minutes of walking, sometimes even disappearing, but the pain is commonly felt again the longer you're on the foot. Fasciitis can be aggravated by shoes that lack appropriate support, especially in the arch area, and by the chronic irritation of long-periods of standing, especially on concrete, and by being overweight. Other factors which influence this condition are gender (females get this more than men), age (30s to 50s are most common), and those with flatter-than-normal feet. It doesn't help that fascia doesn't heal particularly quickly. This is because it has relatively poor circulation, which is why it's white in colour.
Diagnosis of a plantar plate tear can often be challenging due to the complex nature of the anatomy of the foot. Careful history taking and an examination of the area of pain is required to determine the extent and cause of the tear. If necessary, further investigations such as x-rays or diagnostic ultrasound may be ordered by your podiatrist to help evaluate the severity of the problem.
Non Surgical Treatment
An orthotic arch support, specially molded to fit your foot, may be part of your treatment. These supports can be particularly helpful if you have flat feet or high arches. You can tell if that is what is needed when short-term taping decreases your heel pain.
In cases where cast immobilization, orthoses and shoe therapy have failed, surgery is the next alternative. The goal of surgery and non-surgical treatment is to eliminate pain, stop progression of the deformity and improve mobility of the patient. Opinions vary as to the best surgical treatment for adult acquired flatfoot. Procedures commonly used to correct the condition include tendon debridement, tendon transfers, osteotomies (cutting and repositioning of bone) and joint fusions.
There are several things that you can do to prevent and treat arch pain. This includes Avoiding high heeled shoes, Stretching the calf muscles regularly, Wearing well fitted, comfortable shoes, Using customisedorthotic devices or shoe inserts, Elevating the feet and applying ice and taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications. You can also care for your feet by paying attention to any changes in your feet as you get older. It is normal for feet to lose some of their fat pads as a person ages. Your feet may get bigger, both wider and longer as well. Make sure that you wear shoes that are sturdy, but comfortable, and have your feet measured before you buy shoes to make sure that you are still wearing the right size. Shoe sizes vary from one brand to the next, so it is a good idea to have your feet measured every time you purchase shoes. When choosing shoes, match the shoe to the activity for which it will be worn. Within the broader grouping of athletic shoes, there are different categories with different features. For example, a running shoe has different features than a walking shoe. You may develop some arthritic changes in your feet over time, too. If you notice that you are experiencing more pain in your feet, see your doctor for an evaluation. If the pain is arthritis-related, your doctor may recommend medication or other treatment to slow the progression of the arthritis.